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Firms are developing a system for controlling cash receipts and expenditures.

Abstract

Cash composition and accounts for their accounting. The essence of the cash equivalent. Accounting and control of cash. Methods of accounting for shortages and surpluses of cash. Accounting for the creation and use of the fund of small amounts

Cash composition and accounts for their accounting. The essence of the cash equivalent

Cash is the most liquid part of the assets of enterprises, which is used to pay debts and purchase new assets.

Cash includes:

Cash stored at the enterprise; Cash in bank accounts; Bank bills and cashier’s checks and transfers.

In the US, all this is cash and is accounted for in one account "Cash". In Western European countries, cash is accounted for in "Cashier" accounts in banks, in national and foreign currency.

In the balance sheet, cash is reflected under the item Cash – cash (USA), and in European countries – at the bottom of the balance sheet: "Cashier" and "Bank accounts".

Cash equivalents are short-term financial investments that are freely convertible to a known amount of cash and have little risk of change in value.

Accounting and control of money at the box office

Much attention is paid to the accounting and control of cash.

Firms are developing a system for controlling cash receipts and expenditures. Cash is mostly tried to minimize, especially in industrial enterprises. But in commercial enterprises at the box office can be significant amounts of money.

The system of internal control includes a plan of the organization, as well as measures aimed at preserving cash (as well as other property), achieving accurate data processing and preparation of financial statements.

Important elements of internal control are:

distribution of responsibilities between employees; division of responsibilities; rotation of employees within the company; use of mechanical (automatic) control devices.

To protect cash and control its safekeeping, the following rules should be followed:

cash accounting must be carried out at the time of its receipt; All cash received must be deposited in the bank on the same day or no later than the next; An employee who receives cash should not exchange it in the accounting department; The employee responsible for receiving cash should not be involved in its distribution.

Accounting for the receipt of money: Dt – "Cashier"; Kt – "Income from sales" "Accounts receivable (debtors, customers)" "Accounts in banks".

Accounting for payment of money: Dt – "Accounts payable (suppliers)" "Fund of small amounts" "Accounts in banks" "Accounts for expenses by elements); Kt -" Cashier ".

Methods of accounting for shortages and surpluses of cash

Shortages or surpluses of money can be detected at the box office, they are credited to the account "Shortages or surpluses at the box office". On Dt the shortage is displayed, and on Kt – size of surplus. (N-d, shortage of cash $ 9: Dt – "Cash" – 4537; Dt – "Shortage or surplus at the box office" – 9; Kt – Income from sales "- 4546.).

In case of a severe shortage of cash, the administration conducts an investigation, finds out the reasons and circumstances of its occurrence. At the end of the reporting period Dtve balance of this account is reflected in the income statement as "Operating expenses" Kt – ve – as "Other income".

Accounting for the creation and use of the fund of small amounts

To make small expenses, firms create a fund of small amounts. This system is also called the advance system or the system of accountable amounts. It provides for the creation of a fund, the payments of which are made for 2 – 4 weeks.

The money is given to an accountable person who keeps it at his desk. Issuance is made by check, money is issued from the box office. When issuing money, an entry is made:

Dt – "Fund of small sums"; Kt – "Cash". In Western Europe, there is a "Cashier" account and the United States – no. The fund is created on a permanent basis, ie it must have a fixed amount of money. Payment from the fund of small amounts is made only for the intended purposes.

For each payment, the accountable person draws up a receipt stating the amount and purpose of the payment. The accountable person on the established date makes the report on expenses and submits to bookkeeping (makes on the basis of receipts of initial documents).

The fund of small amounts is replenished by the amount of expenses through the issuance of a check in the name of the accountable person. (P-d, Dt – "Office expenses" – 40; Dt – "Postal expenses" – 40; Kt – "Cash" – 80).

Control over the fund of small amounts is carried out in such a way that the balance in the fund + the amount of receipts for expenses must always be equal to the amount of the fund limit. Shortages or surpluses are reflected in the account "Shortages or surpluses at the box office".

05.03.2011

Management and financial accounting: the essence and basics of construction. Abstract

The essence and basics of building financial accounting. The essence and basics of building management accounting

The essence and basics of building financial accounting

Financial accounting is a set of rules and procedures that ensure the preparation, disclosure of information about the results of the enterprise (institution, organization) and its financial condition in accordance with the requirements of legislation and accounting standards.

Objects of financial accounting, which are reflected in both synthetic and analytical accounts, are:

assets of the enterprise, sources of own funds, liabilities (liabilities) of the enterprise, costs of the enterprise by their elements and income by their types, financial results of the enterprise and their distribution, business transactions related to the acquisition of resources, production and sales.

A fundamentally important issue of financial accounting is the methodology and organization of cost and income accounting. It is in this issue that the differences in the construction of Finnish accounting are manifested.

A detailed nomenclature of cost elements is developed for financial accounting and an accounting account is assigned to each cost element.

Thus, a system of cost accounts by elements is created. Expenses by elements are accumulated on the expense accounts during the reporting period.

At the end of the reporting period, the income of the reporting period is compared with the costs and the financial result is determined.

The essence and basics of building management accounting

Management accounting is a set of methods and procedures that provide preparation and provision of information for planning, control, decision-making at different levels of enterprise management. This is an internal accounting, which is conducted to meet the information needs of the management of the entire enterprise and its structural units.

The main criterion for the organization of management accounting is the usefulness of the information obtained for the evaluation, control and management decisions. Enterprises and organizations organize management accounting, based on the characteristics of the activity, structure and size of enterprises, management needs.

The main objects of management accounting are the costs and revenues of the enterprise, financial results. But in management accounting costs are regrouped by their purpose, ie by product types, orders, processes, stages of production, centers of responsibility, areas of activity and so on.

Similarly, the grouping of enterprise income and financial results.

Within the framework of management accounting of production enterprises, cost accounting and calculation of production costs are carried out. At the same time, companies independently choose the method of cost accounting and calculation of production costs.

In addition to accounting and calculation of full costs for the purposes of enterprise management use accounting and calculation of variable costs, standard costs.

05.03.2011

International and national accounting standards. Abstract

International accounting standards, their essence and purpose. National accounting standards, their nature, purpose and relationship with IAS

International accounting standards, their essence and purpose

The accounting standard is a normative document that defines the rules and procedures for accounting and reporting.

The need for standardization of financial accounting worldwide and harmonization of accounting systems is determined by the development of economic integration of countries, the creation of international corporations, free economic zones, the creation and operation of joint ventures, joint projects.

Accounting as a business language should be based on generally accepted principles.

The UN plays a significant role in the standardization of accounting, the main object of activity is the study of accounting and reporting of international corporations with the development of appropriate recommendations for their harmonization; promotes the introduction of international standards worldwide.

Bringing national accounting and reporting systems to the requirements of international standards is a way to internationalize accounting, its unification and harmonization, improve the quality of accounting information and trust in it by various users.

International standards regulate the main, fundamental points on which depends the 123helpme.me formation of financial results of the enterprise, the reflection in the reporting of performance and financial condition of the enterprise.

National accounting standards, their nature, purpose and relationship with IAS

The accounting standard is a normative document that defines the rules and procedures for accounting and reporting.

It should be noted that NSBOs have the force of law and are binding. Whereas IASs are of a recommendatory nature.

Accounting systems of different countries differ from each other, but we can identify groups of countries that follow the same approach to building accounting systems. But it should be noted that there are no two countries where the accounting rules are identical.

One of the most common is the three model classification of accounting systems, according to which there are: British-American model (UK, USA, Canada, Australia); continental model (Germany, Austria, France, Italy); South American model (Brazil, Argentina).

The main characteristics of the first model are the focus of accounting on the lack of a wide range of investors, due to the high level of development of the securities market; lack of legislative regulation of accounting, which is regulated by standards developed by professional organizations of accountants; flexibility of the accounting system, etc.

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