State power in Ukraine during the liberation war of 1648-1654.
Such is the law of the market, such are its requirements.
Complicating the tasks associated with the transition to market relations required the involvement of new, more competent personnel in management. With a broad worldview, independent thinking, which are able in difficult economic conditions to organize activities in labor collectives so as not only to survive but also to ensure the implementation of production tasks, reduce operating costs, strengthen discipline and order. Heorhiy Mykolayovych Kirpa, who became the head of the Lviv Railway on July 26, 1993, was well aware of this.
Due to its geographical location, Lviv Railway connects Ukraine with many Western countries. With the declaration of independence, cooperation with them is expanding, and the transportation of goods and passengers is growing. Over the past five years, the staff of the highway has not only improved the organization of transportation, but also increased the requirements for the speed of cargo transfer, opened new border crossings, expanded and reconstructed unloading and reloading points.
Now international passenger traffic is carried out between Ukraine and Poland, as well as transit from East to West through the Ukrainian-Polish crossings Mostyska-Medica, Khyriv-Krostenko, Yahodyn-Dorokhusk, Izov-Hrubieszow, Rava-Ruska-Grebenne. 28 passenger trains run through the mentioned crossings. On June 2, 1996, the Constanta-Kraków passenger route was opened, which will pass on the European track through four countries – Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, stopping at the stations Djakove, Chop, in Transcarpathia.
In a difficult hour of transition to market relations, it is difficult to imagine the future of the Lviv highway. But its entire thirty-five-year history shows that over the years it has become a major transportation center, constantly being modernized and technically equipped. And in the first years of the XXI century it becomes a transport artery of the European level, where high-speed trains will run on its tracks, which in a few hours will deliver passengers and goods not only to all parts of Ukraine, but also to Western countries.
The need to build railways in Ukraine arose long ago. They played a major role in agriculture. For Ukraine in the 1990s, the twentieth century was characterized by a revival in both industry and agriculture. Its endless steppes quickly changed their appearance, factories and plants were built, new industrial areas were formed – Donetsk Coal, Kryvyi Rih Railway and Dnieper Metallurgical. In the new conditions it was impossible to do without such a modern and well-developed mode of transport as rail, which is in close contact with the entire economy.
At the same time, the above-mentioned colonial tendencies of Russia’s economic policy affected the railway construction. The Russian government primarily built (or facilitated) the construction of highways that connected Ukrainian lands not with Ukrainian cities but with Moscow’s industrial area. The construction of railways, in addition, was associated with the strategic plans of the empire, which often contradicted the economic needs of Ukraine.
In the period from 1862-1900 there is a lively construction of railways. Railway tracks appear all over Ukraine.
During the Great Patriotic War, the Ukrainian Railways was able to withstand the load of servicing the front and rear. In the South-Western district alone, 10,000 kilometers of iron track were destroyed. Damage to rail transport. were calculated at 10 thousand rubles.
Despite the difficulties of reforming the economy of Ukraine, associated with the transition to a market economy, South-Western Railways provide rail transport.
March 26, 2013
State power in Ukraine during the liberation war of 1648-1654. Abstract
The need to create Ukrainian statehood and conditions that would contribute to this task were revealed at the beginning of the national liberation war.
For a long time, the Ukrainian people did not have their own nation-state, which was a unique phenomenon – if the people organized into a class society were deprived of national statehood.
To eliminate the threat of the disappearance of the Ukrainian people as an ethnic community, an urgent task was put on the agenda – to create and strengthen the state national formation. This united the efforts of all classes of Ukrainian society in their common struggle for liberation from the power of the Commonwealth.
The organizers of this state were Cossack officers and Ukrainian gentry. They took up the cause from the first days of the war. Already in May 1648 p. From numerous sources in Poland began to receive information that B. Khmelnytsky creates a separate principality with its capital in Kiev, and calls himself Prince of Russia. In early February 1649 p. B. Khmelnytsky himself informed the commissioners of the Polish king of his intentions to create an independent Ukrainian state.
From the beginning of its formation, the Ukrainian state had its main features: public authorities, which did not coincide with the population, but performed their functions in a certain territory; the territory covered by the state organization and the population living on it: taxes collected on the maintenance of public authorities. It should be noted that the population of free Ukraine recognized the new government.
The formation of the Ukrainian state was carried out in a situation of hostilities, which determined its form, namely: to perform state functions adapted ready, tested in practice military-administrative, regimental-hundred organization of the Cossacks. In the extreme conditions of the war, when it was necessary to unite and mobilize the whole nation, this organization became not only common to all insurgent forces, but also the only political, administrative and judicial power in Ukraine, not only the church. As for the Zaporozhian Sich, it retained the long-established form of government.
The creation of the Ukrainian nation-state was first legalized and enshrined in the Zboriv (August 1649) and later in the Bila Tserkva (September 1651) treaties that B. Khmelnytsky concluded with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The powers of public authority were transferred to the governing bodies of the Cossacks. The system of these bodies consisted of three governments: general, regimental, hundredth.
The highest echelon of power is the general government. His powers extended to the entire territory of free Ukraine. Above him stood only the assembly of the whole army – the military, or general, or black council. However, it was not a permanent body. It was convened to address the most important issues of Ukrainian life, the war, and the election of the general government. It was gradually replaced by a council of elders, which consisted mostly of generals and colonels.
The general government was headed by the hetman with his closest aides, who formed the council of the general foreman under the hetman. Hetman was the ruler, the head of Ukraine, he was endowed with broad state powers to perform political, military and financial functions. He issued universals – mandatory regulations. Many of them were devoted to the organization and activities of state institutions. The convening of councils – military and general officers – also depended on him. He was the highest court and commander in chief (“Tie all the regiments beat under the hetman …”).
B. Khmelnytsky became the first hetman of free Ukraine. Originally in January 1648 p. was elected hetman of the Zaporozhian Army – commander in chief of the insurgent Zaporozhye and registered Cossacks. A year later, after the victory at Korsun, B. Khmelnytsky declared himself the head of liberated Ukraine: “It is true that I am a small and insignificant person, but God gave me that I am the sole owner and autocrat of Russia” * … Samovydets says that after the Polish troops fled from Korsun, and with them both crown hetmans, the Ukrainian army persuaded B. Khmelnytsky to take power over the whole of liberated Ukraine.
B. Khmelnytsky was recognized as the head of Ukraine by the Polish king. On February 19, 1649, at a council in Pereyaslav, the ambassadors of Jan-Kazimir presented B. Khmelnytsky with the privilege of freedom of the hetman’s mace and bunchuk, a red flag with a white swan, as well as valuable gifts. The self-seeker confirms that “… monarchs of different countries responded with friendship to the hetman and sent gifts.” Gifts were also received from the Moscow tsar.
And here is a letter to B. Khmelnytsky from faraway England: pagans … “The author of this message was Oliver Cromwell, who was well versed in the powers of state rulers.
It should be noted that B. Khmelnytsky’s position was conditioned in process of realization of his plans. At the beginning of the war, he defined for himself the role of the head of state, which he was going to create in Ukraine.
The closest assistants to the hetman were the general officers, who managed certain branches of government. General Obozny, General Osavul, General Khorunzhiy managed military affairs, were responsible for the combat effectiveness of the armed forces, their material support. General Obozny was the first statesman after the hetman. General Bunchuzhny was the main guardian of the hetman’s insignia and military units, and performed certain instructions of the hetman. The Secretary General was in charge of foreign relations, and the office was subordinated to him. The judge-general (first one and then two) presided over 123helpme.me the highest judicial body, the appellate court for regimental and hundreds of courts. All these ministers formed a council of general officers under the hetman.
The General Government was the main administrative, executive and judicial body of the Ukrainian state. The regiments were governed by regimental and hundreds of governments. The regimental government consisted of a colonel and a regimental council, which elected a regimental and a hundred officers. The regimental council initially had considerable power. If necessary, she could put an end to the manifestations of the colonel’s arbitrariness and even eliminate him.